凯时娱乐网址

您所在的位置: 凯时娱乐网址 > SAT/SSAT > SAT阅读

SAT阅读题型分类——作用题

ZUOZHE:XINTONGJIAOYU

2016-02-19 新通教育

SATYUEDUYIZHISHIZHONGGUOKAOSHENGDEBORUOXIANG,XINTONGJIAOYUWEIBANGZHUGUANGDAKAOSHENGTIGAOSATKAOSHICHENGJI,TEDIJINGXINZHENGLILESATYUEDUFENLEITIKU。NEIKUAILAISATYUEDUGAOFENSUCAIKUJIQUYINGYANGBA!

      Since the late 1970’s, in the face of a severe loss of
market share in dozens of industries, manufacturers in
the United States have been trying to improve productivity
—and therefore enhance their international
(5) competitiveness—through cost—cutting programs. (Cost-
cutting here is defined as raising labor output while
holding the amount of labor constant.) However, from
1978 through 1982, productivity—the value of goods
manufactured divided by the amount of labor input—
(10) did not improve; and while the results were better in the
business upturn of the three years following, they ran 25
percent lower than productivity improvements during
earlier, post-1945 upturns. At the same time, it became clear
that the harder manufactures worked to
(15) implement cost-cutting, the more they lost their competitive
edge.

    With this paradox in mind, I recently visited 25
companies; it became clear to me that the cost-cutting
approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally
(20) flawed. Manufacturing regularly observes a “40, 40, 20”
rule. Roughly 40 percent of any manufacturing-based
competitive advantage derives from long-term changes
in manufacturing structure (decisions about the number,
size, location, and capacity of facilities) and in approaches
(25)to materials. Another 40 percent comes from major
changes in equipment and process technology. The final
20 percent rests on implementing conventional cost-
cutting. This rule does not imply that cost-cutting should
not be tried. The well-known tools of this approach—
(30)including simplifying jobs and retraining employees to
work smarter, not harder—do produce results. But the
tools quickly reach the limits of what they can
contribute.

    Another problem is that the cost-cutting approach
(35) hinders innovation and discourages creative people. As
Abernathy’s study of automobile manufacturers has
shown, an industry can easily become prisoner of its
own investments in cost-cutting techniques, reducing its
ability to develop new products. And managers under
(40) pressure to maximize cost-cutting will resist innovation
because they know that more fundamental changes in
processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on
which they are measured. Production managers have
always seen their job as one of minimizing costs and
(45) maximizing output. This dimension of performance has
until recently sufficed as a basis of evaluation, but it has
created a penny-pinching, mechanistic culture in most
factories that has kept away creative managers.

    Every company I know that has freed itself from the
(50)paradox has done so, in part, by developing and
implementing a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy
focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equipment
and process technology. In one company a manufacturing
strategy that allowed different areas of the
(55)factory to specialize in different markets replaced the
conventional cost-cutting approach; within three years
the company regained its competitive advantage.
Together with such strategies, successful companies are
also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of
objectives besides cutting costs. There is hope for manufacturing,
but it clearly rests on a different way of managing.
 
3. The primary function of the first paragraph of the passage is to
  (A) outline in brief the author’s argument
  (B) anticipate challenges to the prescriptions that follow
  (C) clarify some disputed definitions of economic terms
  (D) summarize a number of long-accepted explanations
    (E) present a historical context for the author’s observations

查看正确答案和解析

 

SAT/SSAT 保分课程

课程名称 学习目标 班级特色
SAT入门班 积累词汇 丰富写作素材 针对性强 高效提高学生的能力 报名
SAT1800分钻石小班 达到SAT1800分水平 2-4人小班教学 报名
SAT精品2000分冲刺班 达到SAT2000+ 强化、提高解题能力 报名
SAT基础VIP1V1课程 SAT冲至2000分 全真模考 私人定制 报名
SAT北美名校班 达到SAT1800分水平 注重考试细节,真题归类练习讲解 报名
SAT强化课程 SAT 2100+分 小班名师授课 报名

更多分享

  • SATGUANFANGZUOWENTIKU

    MIANFEIXIAZAI

    格式: doc 大小:358KB

  • SATYUFALIANXITITIKU

    MIANFEIXIAZAI

    格式: 凯时娱乐网址doc 大小:219KB

  • SATXIEZUOLINIANZHENTI

    MIANFEIXIAZAI

    格式: doc 大小:179KB

全方位解读SAT
  • 考试提醒
  • 报名
  • 考试
  • 查分
2018年SAT考试报名时间

近期考试:凯时娱乐网址8月25 10月6日 11月3日 12月1日

报名

近期考试:凯时娱乐网址8月25 10月6日 11月3日 12月1日

考试

近期考试:8月25 10月6日 11月3日 12月1日

分数
  • 考前预测
  • 名师押题 缩小范围100%命中