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2015-11-17 新通教育


Passage 1

  Had Dr. Johnson written his own Life, in
  conformity with the opinion which he has given, that
  every man's life may be best written by himself; had
  he employed in the preservation of his own history,
  5 that clearness of narration and elegance of language in
  which he has embalmed so many eminent persons, the
  world would probably have had the most perfect
  example of biography that was ever exhibited. But
  although he at different times, in a desultory manner,
  10 committed to writing many particulars of the progress
  of his mind and fortunes, he never had persevering
  diligence enough to form them into a regular
  composition. Of these memorials a few have been
  preserved; but the greater part was consigned by him
  15 to the flames, a few days before his death.
  As I had the honour and happiness of enjoying
  his friendship for upwards of twenty years; as I had
  the scheme of writing his life constantly in view; as
  he was well apprised of this circumstance, and from
  20 time to time obligingly satisfied my enquiries, by
  communicating to me the incidents of his early years;
  as I acquired a facility in recollecting, and was very
  assiduous in recording, his conversation, of which the
  extraordinary vigour and vivacity constituted one of
  25 the first features of his character; and as I have spared
  no pains in obtaining materials concerning him, from
  every quarter where I could discover that they were to
  be found, and have been favoured with the most
  liberal communications by his friends; I flatter myself
  30 that few biographers have entered upon such a work
  as this, with more advantages; independent of literary
  abilities, in which I am not vain enough to compare
  myself with some great names who have gone before
  me in this kind of writing.
  35 Wherever narrative is necessary to explain,
  connect, and supply, I furnish it to the best of my
  abilities; but in the chronological series of Johnson's
  life, which I trace as distinctly as I can, year by year, I
  produce, wherever it is in my power, his own minutes,
  40 letters, or conversation, being convinced that this
  mode is more lively, and will make my readers better
  acquainted with him, than even most of those were
  who actually knew him, but could know him only
  partially; whereas there is here an accumulation of
  45 intelligence from various points, by which his
  character is more fully understood and illustrated.
  Indeed I cannot conceive a more perfect mode
  of writing any man's life, than not only relating all the
  most important events of it in their order, but
  50 interweaving what he privately wrote, and said, and
  thought; by which mankind are enabled as it were to
  see him alive, and to 'live over each scene' with him,
  as he actually advanced through the several stages of
  his life. Had his other friends been as diligent and
  55 ardent as I was, he might have been almost entirely
  preserved. As it is, I will venture to say that he will be
  seen in this work more completely than any man who
  has ever yet lived.
  And he will be seen as he really was, for I
  60 profess to write, not his panegyric, which must be all
  praise, but his Life; which, great and good as he was,
  must not be supposed to be entirely perfect. To be as
  he was, is indeed subject of panegyric enough to any
  man in this state of being; but in every picture there
  65 should be shade as well as light, and when I delineate
  him without reserve, I do what he himself
  recommended, both by his precept and his example:
  'If the biographer writes from personal
  knowledge, and makes haste to gratify the public
  70 curiosity, there is danger lest his interest, his fear, his
  gratitude, or his tenderness, overpower his fidelity,
  and tempt him to conceal, if not to invent. There are
  many who think it an act of piety to hide the faults or
  failings of their friends, even when they can no longer
  75 suffer by their detection; we therefore see whole ranks
  of characters adorned with uniform panegyric, and not
  to be known from one another but by extrinsic and
  casual circumstances. If we owe regard to the memory
  of the dead, there is yet more respect to be paid to
  80 knowledge, to virtue, and to truth.'

Passage 2

  Nobody ever wrote a dull autobiography. If one may
  make such a bull, the very dullness would be
  interesting. The autobiographer has two qualifications
  of supreme importance in all literary work. He is
  85 writing about a topic in which he is keenly interested,
  and about a topic upon which he is the highest living
  authority. It may he reckoned, too, as a special felicity
  that an autobiography, alone of all books, may be
  more valuable in proportion to the amount of
  90 misrepresentation which it contains. We do not
  wonder when a man gives a false character to his
  neighbour, but it is always curious to see how a man
  contrives to present a false testimonial to himself. It is
  pleasant to he admitted behind the scenes and trace
  95 the growth of that singular phantom which is the
  man's own shadow cast upon the coloured and
  distorting mists of memory. Autobiography for these
  reasons is so generally interesting, that I have
  frequently thought with the admirable Benvenuto
  100 Cellini that it should be considered as a duty by all
  eminent men; and, indeed, by men not eminent. As
  every sensible man is exhorted to make his will, he
  should also be bound to leave to his descendants some
  account of his experience of life. The dullest of us
  105 would in spite of themselves say something
  profoundly interesting, if only by explaining how they
  came to be so dull--a circumstance which is
  sometimes in great need of explanation. On reflection,
  however, we must admit that autobiography done
  110 under compulsion would he in danger of losing the
  essential charm of spontaneity. The true
  autobiography is written by one who feels an
  irresistible longing for confidential expansion; who is
  forced by his innate constitution to unbosom himself
  115 to the public of the kind of matter generally reserved
  for our closest intimacy.

       1. It can be inferred that Dr. Johnson
  A. wrote many biographies
  B. wrote his own autobiography
  C. was opposed to autobiography
  D. did not want Boswell to write about him
  E. encouraged Boswell to destroy his papers

  2. In passage I, the author, Boswell, seems most proud of his
  A. literary abilities
  B. friendship with an eminent man
  C. thoroughness in obtaining biographical materials
  D. good memory
  E. personal knowledge of the life of Johnson

  3. The writer of passage I apparently believes all of the following except
  A. it is difficult for any individual to know any man completely
  B. letters and conversations are especially interesting
  C. other friends should also have recorded Johnson’s conversation
  D. Johnson was a great man despite his faults
  E. it is not necessary to follow a chronological approach to biography

  4. ‘Panegyric’ (line 60) most nearly means
  A. eulogy
  B. myth
  C. fame
  D. portrait
  E. caricature

  5. In the quotation in the last paragraph of passage1, Dr. Johnson is concerned that biographers sometimes tend to do all of the following except
  A. fabricate details of a man’s life
  B. put pleasing the public too high in their priorities
  C. conceal facts out of a false sense of respect
  D. tend to over-praise their subjects
  E. speak ill of the dead

  6. The word ‘bull’ (line 82) would most likely mean
  A. generalization
  B. paradoxical statement
  C. general rule
  D. confession
  E. ridiculous assertion

  7. The ‘phantom’ (line 95) is a person’s
  A. uniquely clear perception of himself
  B. distortion of his memories to suit the impression he wishes to create
  C. tendency to denigrate others
  D. enhancement of autobiography by authentic memories
  E. growing awareness of his own importance

  8. The author of passage II mentions Cellini (line 100) as
  A. an eminent yet dull man
  B. a biographer of distinction
  C. a confidant of the author
  D. an authority who has advocated the writing of autobiography
  E. a lawyer who thought that wills should contain autobiographical information

  9. The author of passage 2 seems to think that misrepresentation in an autobiography
  I is to be expected
  II adds to the interest
  III reveals insight into character
  A. I only
  B. II only
  C. I and II only
  D. II and III only
  E. I, II and III

  10. In the sentence ‘On reflection...’, (lines 108-110) the author
  A. qualifies his opinion stated earlier
  B. defines the most important attribute of biography
  C. introduces his main point
  D. enlarges on his theme
  E. identifies a problem

  11. The author of passage 2 and Dr. Johnson would probably have agreed that
  I an autobiographer is the greatest authority on his own life
  II autobiography is always misleading
  III biography tends to over-praise
  A. I only
  B. II only
  C. III only
  D. I and II only
  E. II and III only

  12. It can be inferred that Boswell would be most surprised by the contention of the author of passage 2 that
  A. all eminent men should write an autobiography
  B. people may misrepresent the character of others
  C. dull men can be profoundly interesting
  D. a man is the highest authority on his own life
  E. autobiographies are profoundly interesting

  13. Boswell and the author of passage two differ in tone and attitude to their subjects in that Boswell
  A. is more objective whereas Stephen is more rhetorical
  B. is more confident whereas Stephen is more hesitant
  C. writes more impersonally, whereas Stephen writes formally
  D. is more pompous, whereas Stephen does not always expect to be taken seriously
  E. writes in a more literary style, whereas Stephen’s writing is more expository




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